Course SyllabusHumanism in Health and Healthcare

Humanism in Health and Healthcare Home Page


This Humanism in Health and Healthcare introductory course provides foundational theoretical and practical knowledge and skills, as well as an opportunity to plan (with locally and globally available peers and mentors) humanistic strategies, and practice humanistic techniques to assist patients in achieving positive health behavior changes.  All parts of this training are free, including registration, learning, testing, and a certificate of completion. This course is intended for physicians, nurses, and allied health professionals in training and in practice. 

This Humanism in Health and Healthcare course was developed in partnership with the Oakland University -- William Beaumont School of Medicine and The Arnold P. Gold Foundation. Like all NextGenU.org courses, it is competency-based, using competencies from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the Association of American Medical Colleges, and the National Board of Osteopathic Medical Examiners.

              

The course developers are Jason Adam Wasserman, Ph.D., and Stephen Loftus, Ph.D.; additional content creators are Ashley Inez Garzaniti, MSIV; Nathan Loudon, MSIV; Matthew Drogowski, MD; Dorothy Levine, MD; Lesley Miller, MD; and Hedy S. Wald, Ph.D.

There are 13 modules to complete, which provide: 

  1. An introduction to the foundations and methods of humanism and humanistic engagement; 
  2. Skills on the science of empathy and cultural competency;
  3. An overview of the future of humanism in health and healthcare. 

Approximate time for completion of this course is 32 hours at an average reading rate of 144 words/minute.

The course requires completion of all required peer activities. At the end of each lesson, there is a practice quiz. At the end of the course, after you’ve completed each lesson, quiz, and activity, you’ll have access to a final exam, and a chance to assess the training. Once you’ve passed that last test, you will be able to download a certificate of completion from NextGenU.org and our course’s co-sponsoring organizations (listed above). We keep all of your personal information confidential, never sell any of your information, and only use anonymized data for research purposes, and we are also happy to report your testing information and share your work with anyone (your school, employer, etc.) at your request. We hope that you will find this a rewarding learning experience, and we count on your feedback to help us improve this training for future students.

Engaging with this Course:

You may browse this course for free to learn for your personal enrichment; there are no requirements.

To obtain a certificate
  • Show in the registration fields that you have the appropriate prerequisites to be certified. This course requires the learner to have already obtained a college-level degree. 
  • Take the brief pre-test.
  • Complete all the reading requirements.
  • Complete all quizzes and pass with a 70% with unlimited attempts.
  • Complete 2 peer activity and associated certification quizzes.
  • Successfully complete the final exam with a minimum of 70% and a maximum of 3 attempts.
  • Complete the self and course evaluation forms.

To obtain credit 
  • Complete all requirements listed above for the certificate. 
  • Your learning institution or workplace should approve the partner-university-sponsored NextGenU.org course for educational credit, as they would for their learner taking a course anywhere.  
  • NextGenU.org is happy to provide your institution with:
    • a link to and description of the course training, so they can see all its components, including the cosponsoring universities and other professional organization cosponsors; 
    • your grade on the final exam;
    • your work products (e.g. peer and mentored activities), and any other required or optional shared materials that you produce and authorize to share with them;  
    • your evaluations -- course, self, and peer assessments;
    • a copy of your certificate of completion, with the co-sponsoring universities and other organizations listed.

To obtain a degree co-sponsored with NextGenU.org, registrants must be enrolled in a degree program as a student of a NextGenU.org institutional partner. If you think that your institution might be interested in offering a degree with NextGenU.org contact us.

We hope that you will find this a rewarding learning experience, and we count on your assessment and feedback to help us improve this training for future students.

Next Steps

  • Take the short knowledge pre-test below. It allows us to assess various aspects of the course itself.
  • Complete the registration form.
  • Begin the course with Module 1: History of Medicine, Modernism, and the Emergence of the Biomedical Model. In each lesson, read the description, complete all required readings and any required activity, and take the corresponding quizzes.


Module 1: History of Medicine, Modernism, and the Emergence of the Biomedical Model

Before starting this first module, please take a moment to take the short knowledge Pre-test above. It allows us to assess various aspects of the course itself and is mandatory to receive your certificate upon completion of the course.

Competencies covered in this module:
  1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
  2. Professionalism: KNOWLEDGE - Demonstrate knowledge of the behavioral and social sciences that provide the foundation for the professionalism competency, including medical ethics, social accountability and responsibility, and commitment to professional virtues and responsibilities. (AACOM V. 1)
  3. Demonstrate an appreciation of the history of and contemporary issues in nursing and their impact on current nursing practice. (AACN VIII. 5) 

Module 1: Lesson 1: The Emergence of Modern Medicine

Learning Objectives
  • Describe the transition from pre-modern to modern medicine and its impact on humanism in health and healthcare.
Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 38 mins

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            Module 2: The Epidemiological Transition and the Humanistic (Re)turn

            Competencies covered in this module:
            1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioural sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
            2. Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Identify the determinants of populations’ health. (AACOM VI. 5a)
            3. Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Identify sources of disparities in populations’ health and access to care. (AACOM VI. 5b)
            4. Demonstrate an appreciation of the history of and contemporary issues in nursing and their impact on current nursing practice. (AACN VIII. 5)

            Module 2: Lesson 1: The Epidemiological Transition

            Learning Objectives
            • Define and discuss the epidemiological transition.
            • Analyze how shifts in the epidemiological profile of disease have caused shifts in the structure and function of the health care system.
            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 7 mins

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                      Module 2: Lesson 2: The Impact of the Epidemiological Transition on Humanism in Health and Healthcare

                      Learning Objectives
                      • Describe how late modern epidemiological transitions have contributed to a re-emerging emphasis on humanism in health and healthcare.
                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 34 mins

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                                Module 3: Medicalization and Social Control

                                Competencies covered in this module:
                                1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioural sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioural sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psycho-social and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                3. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. (AAMC 5)
                                4. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to ethical principles pertaining to provision or withholding of care, confidentiality, informed consent, and business practices, including compliance with relevant laws, policies, and regulations. (AAMC 5.6)
                                5. Professionalism: ETHICS - Demonstrate knowledge of and the ability to apply ethical principles in the practice and research of osteopathic medicine, particularly in the areas of provision or withholding of clinical care, confidentiality of patient information, informed consent, business practices, the conduct of research, and the reporting of research results. (AACOM V. 6)
                                6. Engage in ethical reasoning and actions to provide leadership in promoting advocacy, collaboration, and social justice as a socially responsible citizen. (AACN I. 6)

                                Module 3: Lesson 1: Medicalization and Social Control

                                Learning Objectives
                                • Define medicalization.
                                • Describe how medicalization reflects power dynamics inherent to medicine and health care.
                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 20 mins

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                                          Module 3: Lesson 2: Medicalization and Overdiagnosis

                                          Learning Objectives
                                          • Identify how medicalization leads to over-diagnosis and articulate why this may negatively impact patient care.
                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 18 mins

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                                                    Module 4: The Biopsychosocial Model

                                                    Competencies covered in this module:
                                                    1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioural sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                    2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of epidemiological sciences to the identification of health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources, and disease prevention/health promotion efforts for patients and populations. (AAMC 2.4)
                                                    3. Medical Knowledge: Articulate basic biomedical science and epidemiological and clinical science principles related to patient presentation. (AACOM II. 1)
                                                    4. Demonstrate an appreciation of the history of and contemporary issues in nursing and their impact on current nursing practice. (AACN VIII. 5)

                                                    Module 4: Lesson 1: An Overview of the Biopsychosocial Model

                                                    Learning Objectives
                                                    • Define each aspect of the biopsychosocial model and describe each interacts with the others to form a more robust picture of health and illness in contrast to the traditional biomedical model.
                                                    • Describe potential shortcomings of the biopsyhosocial model; in particular, analyse whether it is a sufficient framework for humanism in health and healthcare.
                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 28 mins

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                                                            Module 5: The Birth of Bioethics and the Evolution of Humanism

                                                            Competencies covered in this module:
                                                            1. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. (AAMC 5)
                                                            2. Professionalism: Demonstrate respect for patient privacy and autonomy. (AAMC 5.3)
                                                            3. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to ethical principles pertaining to provision or withholding of care, confidentiality, informed consent, and business practices, including compliance with relevant laws, policies, and regulations. (AAMC 5.6)
                                                            4. Professionalism: KNOWLEDGE - Demonstrate knowledge of the behavioural and social sciences that provide the foundation for the professionalism competency, including medical ethics, social accountability and responsibility, and commitment to professional virtues and responsibilities. (AACOM V. 1)
                                                            5. Professionalism: KNOWLEDGE - Demonstrate social accountability and responsibility (i.e. the welfare of the patient or society should supersede the physician’s self-interest). (AACOM V. 1c)
                                                            6. Professionalism: ETHICS - Demonstrate knowledge of and the ability to apply ethical principles in the practice and research of osteopathic medicine, particularly in the areas of provision or withholding of clinical care, confidentiality of patient information, informed consent, business practices, the conduct of research, and the reporting of research results. (AACOM V. 6)
                                                            7. Professionalism: ETHICS - Apply the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, fidelity, justice, and utility. (AACOM V. 6f)
                                                            8. Engage in ethical reasoning and actions to provide leadership in promoting advocacy, collaboration, and social justice as a socially responsible citizen. (AACN I. 6)

                                                            Module 5: Lesson 1: The Historical Evolution of Bioethics

                                                            Learning Objectives
                                                            • Describe the origins of bioethics as a discipline, including watershed cases in both medical research and clinical medicine and the development of its foci from acute dilemmas to broader social and humanistic aspects of ethics.
                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 60 mins

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                                                                      Module 5: Lesson 2: Clinical Ethics Analysis

                                                                      Learning Objectives
                                                                      • Discuss the the principles of clinical ethics and articulate four key domains of analysis ("the four topics") of clinical ethics issues.
                                                                      • Analyse the four key domains of clinical ethics analysis for where notions of humanism are manifest and where normative ethics analysis may not be fully humanistic.
                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 36 mins

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                                                                                Module 6: The Science of Empathy

                                                                                Competencies covered in this module:
                                                                                1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioural sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioural sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                3. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Explore the psychosocial, occupational, and biomechanical environment in which the patient lives and/or in which health care is administered. (AACOM IV. 1m)
                                                                                4. Professionalism: HUMANISTIC BEHAVIOR - Demonstrate humanistic behaviour, including respect, compassion, probity, honesty, and trustworthiness. (AACOM V. 2)
                                                                                5. Synthesise theories and concepts from liberal education to build an understanding of the human experience. (AACN I. 2)

                                                                                Module 6: Lesson 1: The Science of Empathy

                                                                                Learning Objectives
                                                                                • Describe the notion of empathy, and how it differs from sympathy.
                                                                                • Describe the scientific basis for empathy and its contributions to interpersonal interactions and relationships.
                                                                                • Analyse how the concept of empathy is critical to medical practice, and particularly important after the epidemiological transition (you'll need to draw on concepts from previous modules in this course to do so adequately).
                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 26 mins

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                                                                                          Module 6: Lesson 2: Empathy in Patient Care

                                                                                          Learning Objectives
                                                                                          • Describe how empathy affects measurable patient outcomes and the evidence supporting this in the research literature.
                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 22 mins

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                                                                                                    Module 7: Cultivating Empathy: Practices of the Senses

                                                                                                    Competencies covered in this module:
                                                                                                    1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioural sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                                    2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioural sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                                    3. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in the effective exchange of information and collaboration with patients, their families, and health professionals. (AAMC 4)
                                                                                                    4. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Demonstrate sensitivity, honesty, and compassion in difficult conversations, including those about death, end of life, adverse events, bad news, disclosure of errors, and other sensitive topics. (AAMC 4.6)
                                                                                                    5. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. (AAMC 5)
                                                                                                    6. Professionalism: Demonstrate compassion, integrity, and respect for others. (AAMC 5.1)
                                                                                                    7. Personal and Professional Development: Demonstrate the qualities required to sustain lifelong personal and professional growth. (AAMC 8)
                                                                                                    8. Personal and Professional Development: Recognize that ambiguity is part of clinical health care and respond by utilizing appropriate resources in dealing with uncertainty. (AAMC 8.8)
                                                                                                    9. Professionalism: KNOWLEDGE - Demonstrate knowledge of the behavioural and social sciences that provide the foundation for the professionalism competency, including medical ethics, social accountability and responsibility, and commitment to professional virtues and responsibilities. (AACOM V. 1)
                                                                                                    10. Professionalism: KNOWLEDGE - Recognize personal values, attitudes, and biases as they influence patient care. (AACOM V. 1b)
                                                                                                    11. Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice - Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice. (AACN 1)
                                                                                                    12. Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice - Synthesize theories and concepts from liberal education to build an understanding of the human experience. (AACN 2)
                                                                                                    13. Essential I: Liberal Education for Baccalaureate Generalist Nursing Practice - Demonstrate tolerance for the ambiguity and unpredictability of the world and its effect on the healthcare system. (AACN 8)

                                                                                                    Module 7: Lesson 1: Working with Literature

                                                                                                    Learning Objectives
                                                                                                    • Articulate the value of reading stories for clinical practitioners in terms of the diagnostic process, understanding illness experiences, and wrestling with ambiguity.
                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 57 mins

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                                                                                                            Module 7: Lesson 2: Working with Visual Art

                                                                                                            Learning Objectives
                                                                                                            • Practice deliberate meditation and introspection while observing visual art articulate resulting insights that relate to the experience of illness and healthcare practice.
                                                                                                            • Describe what visual art may represent about the individual that chose it.
                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 50 mins

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                                                                                                                      Module 7: Lesson 3: Working with Poetry and Prose

                                                                                                                      Learning Objectives
                                                                                                                      • Describe how your understanding of your purpose and identity has been impacted by your experiences in medicine.
                                                                                                                      • Discuss what you have learned about yourself by reading poetry written by others.
                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 40 mins

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                                                                                                                                Module 7: Lesson 4: Working with Music

                                                                                                                                Learning Objectives
                                                                                                                                • Articulate the parallels between music and health care practice.
                                                                                                                                • Analyze how a practitioner might, using a deep analytical listening of music might, at least over time, develop greater facility with the humanistic aspects of patient care.
                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 22 mins

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                                                                                                                                        Module 8: Empathy in Practice: Narrative Medicine/Narrative Communication

                                                                                                                                        Competencies covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                        1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                                                                        2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioral sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                                                                        3. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Demonstrate interpersonal and communication skills that result in the effective exchange of information and collaboration with patients, their families, and health professionals. (AAMC 4)
                                                                                                                                        4. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Communicate effectively with patients, families, and the public, as appropriate, across a broad range of socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds. (AAMC 4.1)
                                                                                                                                        5. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Demonstrate insight and understanding about emotions and human responses to emotions that allow one to develop and manage interpersonal interactions. (AAMC 4.7)
                                                                                                                                        6. Osteopathic Principles and Practices: Consider the patient’s perspective and values in diagnostic decision making. (AACOM I. 4h)
                                                                                                                                        7. Interpersonal and Communication Skills: Explore the psychosocial, occupational, and biomechanical environment in which the patient lives and/or in which health care is administered. (AACOM IV. 1m)
                                                                                                                                        8. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice. (AACN I. 1)
                                                                                                                                        9. Synthesize theories and concepts from liberal education to build an understanding of the human experience. (AACN I. 2)
                                                                                                                                        10. Incorporate effective communication techniques, including negotiation and conflict resolution to produce positive professional working relationships. (AACN VI. 3)

                                                                                                                                        Module 8: Lesson 1: Narrative Medicine: Connecting with Patients

                                                                                                                                        Learning Objectives
                                                                                                                                        • Articulate the way in which narrative can enable a richer understanding of patients and their illness experiences.
                                                                                                                                        • Describe how a narrative approach to patient care can help connect the patient and the clinician in a relationship.
                                                                                                                                        • Define 7 key concepts necessary to eliciting a patient's narrative.
                                                                                                                                        • Describe key questions that are useful for eliciting and elaborating patient narrative in a clinical "conversation".
                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 41 mins

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                                                                                                                                                Module 9: Self Care: Caring for Self to Care for Others

                                                                                                                                                Competencies covered in this module:
                                                                                                                                                1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                                                                                2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioral sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                                                                                3. Personal and Professional Development: Demonstrate the qualities required to sustain lifelong personal and professional growth. (AAMC 8)
                                                                                                                                                4. Personal and Professional Development: Develop the ability to use self-awareness of knowledge, skills, and emotional limitations to engage in appropriate help-seeking behaviors. (AAMC 8.1)
                                                                                                                                                5. Personal and Professional Development: Demonstrate healthy coping mechanisms to respond to stress. (AAMC 8.2)
                                                                                                                                                6. Professionalism: PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL SELF-CARE - Ensure that his/her mental, physical, or health condition does not have a negative impact on patient care or welfare. (AACOM V. 8b)
                                                                                                                                                7. Professionalism: PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL SELF-CARE - Identify personal sources of stress, and apply appropriate interventions. (AACOM V. 8f)
                                                                                                                                                8. Recognize the relationship between personal health, self renewal, and the ability to deliver sustained quality care. (AACN 14)

                                                                                                                                                Module 9: Lesson 1: Understanding Burnout in Healthcare: Causes and Consequences

                                                                                                                                                Learning Objectives
                                                                                                                                                • Define burnout and articulate its various causes among health care professionals.
                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 19 mins

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                                                                                                                                                        Module 9: Lesson 2: Self-care and Patient Care

                                                                                                                                                        Learning Objectives
                                                                                                                                                        • Describe ways that burnout can be mitigated in healthcare, both at the individual and system levels.
                                                                                                                                                        • Describe the potential consequences of burnout for both the provider and for patient care.
                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 39 mins

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                                                                                                                                                                Module 9: Lesson 3: Empathy and Self-care at Odds?: Thinking Realistically and Critically

                                                                                                                                                                Learning Objectives
                                                                                                                                                                • Analyze the dilemmas of empathy among health professionals with respect to humanistic commitment to patients and maintaining an appropriate professional detachment.
                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 10 mins

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                                                                                                                                                                        Module 10: Problems of Otherness and Dilemmas of Difference

                                                                                                                                                                        Competencies covered in this module:

                                                                                                                                                                        1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                                                                                                        2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioral sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                                                                                                        3. Patient Care: Demonstrate cultural awareness and sensitivity when communicating with the patient, family, and caregivers. (AACOM III. 5g) 
                                                                                                                                                                        4. Professionalism: ACCOUNTABILITY - Demonstrate accountability to patients, society, and the profession, including the duty to act in response to the knowledge of professional behavior of others. (AACOM V. 4)
                                                                                                                                                                        5. Professionalism: ACCOUNTABILITY - Demonstrate commitment to underserved, vulnerable, disadvantaged, disenfranchised, and special populations.  (AACOM V. 4h)
                                                                                                                                                                        6. Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health - Assess health/illness beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations. (AACN 3)
                                                                                                                                                                        7. Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values - Reflect on one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to professional practice. (AACN 6)

                                                                                                                                                                        Module 10: Lesson 1: Problematics of Otherness

                                                                                                                                                                        Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                        • Identify the notion of otherness/othering and how it manifests in the health care setting. 
                                                                                                                                                                        • Describe the dilemma of otherness with respect to attempts to address social inequalities and analyze whether it is possible to engage inequality without contributing to the othering of marginalized groups.
                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 56 mins

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                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 11: Marginalization

                                                                                                                                                                                  Competencies covered in this module:

                                                                                                                                                                                  1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                  2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of epidemiological sciences to the identification of health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources, and disease prevention/health promotion efforts for patients and populations. (AAMC 2.4)
                                                                                                                                                                                  3. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioral sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                                                                                                                  4. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. (AAMC 5)
                                                                                                                                                                                  5. Professionalism: Demonstrate accountability to patients, society, and the profession. (AAMC 5.4)
                                                                                                                                                                                  6. Professionalism: Demonstrate sensitivity and responsiveness to a diverse patient population, including but not limited to diversity in gender, age, culture, race, religion, disabilities, and sexual orientation. (AAMC 5.5)
                                                                                                                                                                                  7. Patient Care: Demonstrate cultural awareness and sensitivity when communicating with the patient, family, and caregivers. (AACOM III. 5g)
                                                                                                                                                                                  8. Professionalism: CULTURAL COMPETENCY - Demonstrate awareness of and proper attention to issues of culture, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, and mental and physical disabilities. (AACOM V. 7)
                                                                                                                                                                                  9. Professionalism: CULTURAL COMPETENCY - Demonstrate how to cope with differences in people in a constructive way. (AACOM V. 7d)
                                                                                                                                                                                  10. Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Describe and apply systematic methods to improve population health. (AACOM VI. 5)
                                                                                                                                                                                  11. Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Identify the determinants of populations’ health. (AACOM VI. 5a)
                                                                                                                                                                                  12. Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Identify sources of disparities in populations’ health and access to care.  (AACOM VI. 5b)
                                                                                                                                                                                  13. Practice-Based Learning and Improvement: Identify vulnerable or marginalized populations within those served, and respond appropriately. (AACOM VI. 5c)
                                                                                                                                                                                  14. Cultural Competencies: Demonstrate an understanding of the scope of culture and the elements that form and define it. (AACOM IX. 1)
                                                                                                                                                                                  15. Cultural Competencies: Recognize personal and professional tendencies toward bias and stereotyping, and work to counter them. (AACOM IX. 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                  16. Cultural Competencies: Understand the public health implications of cultural competence in health care. (AACOM IX. 3)
                                                                                                                                                                                  17. Cultural Competencies: Demonstrate familiarity with basic religious and cultural beliefs that affect patients’ understanding of the etiology of their illness and/or the efficacy of their treatment. (AACOM IX. 4)
                                                                                                                                                                                  18. Cultural Competencies: Use the cultural profile and history in the treatment of individual patients and record them appropriately in the medical record. (AACOM IX. 10)
                                                                                                                                                                                  19. Cultural Competencies: Use the cultural profile and history with individual patients to assess health care needs in the community. (AACOM IX. 11)
                                                                                                                                                                                  20. Public Health Systems Competencies: Assesses and address the determinants of health and illness factors contributing to health promotion and disease prevention. (AACOM X11. 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                  21. Public Health Systems Competencies: Apply basic public health principles, practices, and sciences to the practice of osteopathic medicine.(AACOM X11. 4)
                                                                                                                                                                                  22. Public Health Systems Competencies: Understand and apply knowledge of cultural differences to improve public health among divergent populations. (AACOM X11. 7)
                                                                                                                                                                                  23. Global Health Competencies: Identify and treat individual patients with varying cultural beliefs regarding health, disease, and patient care. (AACOM XIII. 6)
                                                                                                                                                                                  24. Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health - Assess health/illness beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations. (AACN 3)
                                                                                                                                                                                  25. Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values - Reflect on one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to professional practice. (AACN 6)

                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 11: Lesson 1: Global Health and Cross-Cultural Practice

                                                                                                                                                                                  Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                  • Articulate best practices for conducting ethical and humanistic global health work. 
                                                                                                                                                                                  • Analyze the ethical dilemmas inherent to global health work and offer insights into how to navigate the potential for harm by medical volunteers to underresourced countries by drawing on global health best practices.
                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 82 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                  Click here to start this lesson


                                                                                                                                                                                  Required readingsOptional readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 11: Lesson 2: Issues of Class and Poverty

                                                                                                                                                                                            Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                            • Articulate the impact of socioeconomic status on patients’ health status and health behaviors. 
                                                                                                                                                                                            • Demonstrate critical thinking about the needs of patients who face socioeconomic disadvantage and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face.
                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 87 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                            Click here to start this lesson


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                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 11: Lesson 3: Race/Ethnicity and Health

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Articulate the impact of race/ethnicity on patients’ health status and experiences with health and health care.  
                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Demonstrate critical thinking about the needs of patients who face race/ethnic health disadvantages and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face.
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 56 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                         Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 11: Lesson 4: The Health of Immigrants, Refugees, and Displaced Persons

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Discuss different perspectives on the ethical obligation to provide health care to undocumented immigrants. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Articulate the impact of immigration and/or refugee status on patients’ health and their experiences with health and health care. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Demonstrate critical thinking about the needs of patients who face health disadvantages because of their immigrant/refugee status and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 88 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Click here to start this lesson


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 11: Lesson 5: Gender and Health

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Articulate the impact of gender on patients’ health and their experiences with health and health care.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Demonstrate critical thinking about the needs of patients who face health disadvantages because of gender norms and associated stigmas and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 97 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Module 11: Lesson 6: LGBTQ + Persons and Health

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Articulate the social and humanistic factors affecting the health of patients who identify as LGBTQ+, including their experiences in society at large, and the health care system in particular. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    • Demonstrate critical thinking about the needs of patients who face health disadvantages because of their identification as LGBTQ+ and associated stigmas and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 59 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Click here to start this lesson


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Module 11: Lesson 7: Incarcerated and Formerly Incarcerated Persons

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Articulate the social and humanistic factors affecting the health of patients who are incarcerated or formerly incarcerated, including their experiences in society at large, and the health care system in particular. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Describe ethical dilemmas that can emerge for clinical practitioners caring for patients who are incarcerated or were formerly incarcerated. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Demonstrate critical thinking about the needs of patients who face health disadvantages because of incarceration status and associated stigmas and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              • Compare the difference between the minimum care a physician is obligated to provide within a criminal justice setting from the standard they are held to in the free world and describe measures that you could take as a physician to anticipate and meet the health needs of incarcerated or formerly incarcerated patients (see in particular the AMA Journal of Ethics case study.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 53 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 11: Lesson 8: Disability, Health, and Healthcare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Articulate the social and humanistic factors affecting the health of patients who are living with disability. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Describe different models used for understanding disability and the advantages and disadvantages that come with seeing disability in terms of each of these models. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Demonstrate critical thinking about the clinical needs of patients who are living with disabilities and articulate creative approaches to clinical care that are sensitive to the challenges they face.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 77 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 11: Lesson 9: Health, Humanism, and Aging

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Articulate the social and humanistic aspects of aging, particularly with respect to how older people experience aging. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe ways that ageism manifests in the health care setting at both systemic and clinical levels and articulate ways that practitioners can challenge ageism and its effects.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 89 mins

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 11: Lesson 10: Children, Health, and Humanism

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Articulate the social and humanistic aspects of childhood, particularly with respect to how children experience illness. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Describe ways that clinical care for children can use humanistic practices to improve children's illness experiences and coping.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 71 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Click here to start this lesson


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Required readingsOptional readingsPeer Activities
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 11: Lesson 11: Religion/Spirituality and Health

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Articulate the how religion and spirituality affect patient experiences of illness and their relationships with their health care practitioners. 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Describe ways that clinical care for children can use humanistic practices to improve children's illness experiences and coping.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 57 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Click here to start this lesson

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Required readingsOptional readingsPeer Activities
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 12: From Cultural Competency to Cultural Humility: Habits of Respectful Curiosity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Competencies covered in this module:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1. Knowledge for Practice: Demonstrate knowledge of established and evolving biomedical, clinical, epidemiological and social-behavioral sciences, as well as the application of this knowledge to patient care. (AAMC 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        2. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of epidemiological sciences to the identification of health problems, risk factors, treatment strategies, resources, and disease prevention/health promotion efforts for patients and populations. (AAMC 2.4)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3. Knowledge for Practice: Apply principles of social-behavioral sciences to provision of patient care, including assessment of the impact of psychosocial and cultural influences on health, disease, care seeking, care compliance, and barriers to and attitudes toward care. (AAMC 2.5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        4. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. (AAMC 5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        5. Professionalism: Demonstrate accountability to patients, society, and the profession. (AAMC 5.4)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        6. Professionalism: Demonstrate sensitivity and responsiveness to a diverse patient population, including but not limited to diversity in gender, age, culture, race, religion, disabilities, and sexual orientation. (AAMC 5.5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        7. Professionalism: CULTURAL COMPETENCY - Demonstrate awareness of and proper attention to issues of culture, religion, age, gender, sexual orientation, and mental and physical disabilities. (AACOM V. 7)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        8. Professionalism: CULTURAL COMPETENCY - Treat all patients, colleagues, and others fairly, ensuring that no group is favored at the expense of any other. (AACOM V. 7a)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        9. Professionalism: CULTURAL COMPETENCY - Openly discuss cultural issues, and be responsive to cultural cues. (AACOM V. 7c)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        10. Professionalism: CULTURAL COMPETENCY - Demonstrate how to cope with differences in people in a constructive way. (AACOM V. 7d)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        11. Cultural Competencies: Demonstrate an understanding of the scope of culture and the elements that form and define it. (AACOM IX. 1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        12. Cultural Competencies: Recognize personal and professional tendencies toward bias and stereotyping, and work to counter them. (AACOM IX. 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        13. Cultural Competencies: Understand the public health implications of cultural competence in health care. (AACOM IX. 3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        14. Cultural Competencies: Demonstrate familiarity with basic religious and cultural beliefs that affect patients’ understanding of the etiology of their illness and/or the efficacy of their treatment. (AACOM IX. 4) 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        15. Cultural Competencies: Use the cultural profile and history with individual patients to assess health care needs in the community. (AACOM IX. 11)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        16. Essential VII: Clinical Prevention and Population Health - Assess health/illness beliefs, values, attitudes, and practices of individuals, families, groups, communities, and populations. (AACN 3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        17. Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values - Reflect on one’s own beliefs and values as they relate to professional practice. (AACN 6)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        18. Essential VIII: Professionalism and Professional Values - Communicate to the healthcare team one’s personal bias on difficult healthcare decisions that impact one’s ability to provide care. (AACN 8)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Module 12: Lesson 1: From Cultural Competence to Cultural Humility

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Interrogate and discuss the limits of cultural competence as a humanistic enterprise in healthcare.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Analyze and describe the differences between cultural competency and cultural humility.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 27 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Module 12: Lesson 2: Practices of Humility in Healthcare

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  • Describe best practices for integrating cultural humility into patient care.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 13 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Module 12: Lesson 3: From Cultural Humility to Structural Competency and Social Justice

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Describe the limitations of "cultural humility" even insofar as it improves on the concept of "cultural competency." 
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            • Analyze and describe the implications of "structural competency" for patient care.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 46 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 13: The Future of Humanism in Health and Health Care

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Competencies covered in this module:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      1. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities and an adherence to ethical principles. (AAMC 5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2. Professionalism: Demonstrate a commitment to ethical principles pertaining to provision or withholding of care, confidentiality, informed consent, and business practices, including compliance with relevant laws, policies, and regulations. (AAMC 5.6)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3. Systems-Based Practice: Demonstrate an awareness of and responsiveness to the larger context and system of health care, as well as the ability to call effectively on other resources in the system to provide optimal health care. (AAMC 6)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      4. Personal and Professional Development: Demonstrate the qualities required to sustain lifelong personal and professional growth. (AAMC 8)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      5. Personal and Professional Development: Provide leadership skills that enhance team functioning, the learning environment, and/or the health care delivery system. (AAMC 8.6)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      6. Professionalism: HUMANISTIC BEHAVIOR - Demonstrate humanistic behavior, including respect, compassion, probity, honesty, and trustworthiness. (AACOM V. 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      7. Professionalism: HUMANISTIC BEHAVIOR - Demonstrate openness, honesty, and trustworthiness during direct communication with patients and their families and in the writing of reports, the signing of forms, and the provision of evidence in litigation or other formal inquiries. (AACOM V. 2d)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      8. Systems-Based Practice: Demonstrate understanding of how patient care and professional practices affect other health care professionals, health care organizations, and society. (AACOM VII. 2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9. Systems-Based Practice: Demonstrate understanding of how current issues in the world are affecting the delivery of health care to patients and to the community. (AACOM VII. 2g)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      10. Engage in ethical reasoning and actions to provide leadership in promoting advocacy, collaboration, and social justice as a socially responsible citizen. (AACN I. 6)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Module 13: Lesson 1: The Future of Humanism in Medicine

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      • Revisit and describe the value of humanism for health and health care now and in the coming decades (in ways that now draw on all that you've learned in this course).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 33 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Module 13: Lesson 2: Humanism and Technology: Threat or Opportunity

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                • Discuss how increasing technocratization and autonomation may threaten the humanistic elements, but also how technology might be used to amplify the humanistic elements, of health and healthcare.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 28 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Module 13: Lesson 3: Directions Forward

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Learning objectives

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          • Describe goals and strategies for integrating the insights throughout this course into clinical practice, particularly at the bedside, but also within the structures and functions of your institutions and the workflow of your practices.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Approximate time required for the readings for this lesson (at 144 words/minute): 12 mins


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Click here to start this lesson

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Final Exam

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Required readings
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Course and Self Evaluation & Certificate

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